The International Research Area on Foundations of the Sciences

English Version

Chosen News from the World of Science.

Show All

Newsletter n° 1
May 2014

Download the pdf version

Just two news from the evolutionary approach, both in cosmology and biology.

  1. March 2014. After the discovery of the Higgs Boson, a new prediction related to the relativity theory and the Quantum Field Theory (QFT) in fundamental physics seems to have received another observational confirmation. It concerns the existence of Gravitational Waves from the Big Bang. The general relativity theory firstly previewed them. Afterwards, the QFT related them to a gravitational action by the energy of vacuum on the primordial space-time structure.  Effectively, some “ripples” in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation were detected – i. e., in the electromagnetic radiation (“light”) including our entire universe,. These ripples are evidences of “B-mode-polarization” effects onto the electromagnetic field of the CMB (effectively, a “twisting” of the electromagnetic field). These phenomena could have their explanation only by supposing a distortion of the primordial space-time, related with the action of the energy of vacuum. This first empirical discovery of gravitation waves was made thanks to the detection of the B-mode polarized light by the BICEP2 (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization 2) observatory in Antarctica, constructed and managed by the Smithsonian Institute and the Harvard University (USA). The experiment used, for pointing in the right direction its special “telescope”, the very precise maps of the CMB, made recently available by the European PLANCK experiment. BICEP2 waves would thus provide also the first indirect evidence of the Universe early inflation –the gravitational waves would be indeed “after effects” of such a terrific “storm”. These observations, however, must receive further confirmations, before all through the polarization maps of the CMB, obtained by the PLANCK experiment itself, and not yet published. (; ).

    The curvature of space-time depending on the action of the gravitational force is the core of Einstein theory of the general relativity.  When Einstein formulated the theory and it received its most impressive empirical confirmations during the first decade of the XX century, the gravitational action was depending only on the masses of stars and planets over the structure of the space-time. After the discovery of the quantum vacuum related to the formulation of the Third Principle of Thermodynamics during the second decade of the XX century, i.e., the core of QFT, such a distortion has to be attributed also to the gravitational action from the energy of vacuum.  The quantum vacuum indeed is deeply different from the “mechanical vacuum” of the Newtonian mechanics, because it could be “void” of mass, but never of “energy”. “Mass” and “energy”, indeed, according to the relativity and quantum theories, are two manifestations of matter, reciprocally transformable, under given conditions, one into the other. From the quantum vacuum, indeed, according to QFT, everything that exists in our universe (and in other possible universes), each of us included, progressively emerges as an ordered temporary status from its common, dynamic, disordered material substratum (see The “gravitational waves” are thus an empirical confirmation of the gravitational force field hypothesis, related to the energy of vacuum, never observed until now. Because the CMB (the “light of Big-Bang”) is relatively late as to the Big-Bang itself, since CMB appeared only about 380.000 years afterwards (the universe was before “too hot” for releasing light), these ripples in CMB are also the first observational evidences of what happened before. The so-called “primitive inflation”, i.e. the sudden impressive acceleration of the universe expansion (roughly speaking, what made “Big” the initial “Bang”) of which the gravitational waves, indirectly related to the “ripples” of BMC, are an after-effect, happened, indeed, only 10-34 sec. after the beginning of our universe.

  2. November 2013. A paper published on Science discusseda further discovery, following those reported on a paper firstly published on Nature in 2007, of excavate postcranial material from Dmanisi (Georgia), as a trace of the presence of the genus Homo outside Africa around 1.8 million years ago. In the new paper, the Authors report on a new cranium from Dmanisi (D4500) that, together with its mandible (D2600), represents the world's first completely preserved adult hominid skull from the early Pleistocene. In facts, many of the finds of ancient hominids in Africa differ in various morphological peculiarities. The unique blend of traits of this fossil skull recently discovered in Dmanisi, suggests that these peculiarities are nothing more than normal variation between individuals or between small local populations. If so, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. rudolfensis would belong to a single species, and not constitute three different species (see;

    From such a discovery, a simplification of the phylogenetic tree of modern humans could derive. Some evolutionistic theories, indeed, are often excessively “punctuated” by independent branches of the phylogenetic tree (e.g., the S. J. Gould theory of the “punctuated equilibria” in evolution). This often depends on an a-critical use of the statistical tool in the data analysis that intrinsically “hides” higher order correlations among them. As some biologist rightly commented this discovery, biology must use the mathematical tools, not being used by them.